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Dr Bernard E Richardson


Dr Bernard E Richardson Position:Director of Undergraduate Studies and Year 3 & 4 Tutor Email:RichardsonBE ( at )
Telephone:+44 (0)29 208 76710

Research Interests

My primary research interests are in the acoustics of musical instruments, particularly the guitar and violin family. My overall objective is to understand the physics of sound production from stringed instruments and, in particular, to derive quantitative relationships between the construction of the instrument and their perceived tone and playing qualities. The work has a number of challenges: the physics of sound production by musical instruments is surprisingly intricate at times, and for the results to have any real meaning they must be interpreted sensitively in a musical context. Perhaps the biggest challenge of all, however, is conveying meaningful physical ideas, concepts and practical help to musicians and musical instrument makers.

Practical studies of real instruments have involved the development and use of techniques such as holographic and speckle interferometry for the detection of the modal characteristics of guitars and violins. With a good understanding of the mechanics of the acoustical function of these instruments, we have applied numerical techniques such as finite element analysis and the boundary element method to calculate the vibrations and sound radiation fields from instruments. The work allows sounds to be calculated purely from data relating to the dimensions and construction of the instrument. The work has led to new insight into the acoustical function of the guitar and the importance of certain low-order vibrational modes. Psychoacoustical listening tests have been employed to relate constructional parameters with perceived sound quality, and we are thus beginning to establish acoustical criteria for use by instrument makers. This “theoretical model” has identified various acoustical parameters which have a major influence on the musical quality of the instrument.

In a past life, I was also involved in the School’s scanning probe microscopy initiatives during the period 1987-1997. Our primary aims were to investigate and understand the physics, electronic properties and morphology of surfaces and interfaces in semiconducting materials.

Measures of Esteem

I currently sit on the Awards and Membership committee of the Institute of Physics. I am a former Associate Editor of Acta Acustica United with Acustica and a former member of the Council of the Institute of Acoustics.

I have given many invited papers at conferences and at learned societies, including giving a Royal Institution Friday Evening Discourse (2000) and I am a former Kelvin Lecturer of the British Association.


Over the years I have taught all manner of subjects, including quantum mechanics, vibrations and waves, magnetic and gravitational fields (to geophysicists), signal processing, analogue and digital electronics, sound synthesis, computer interfacing, computer programming, and practical physics.

I currently teach the following modules:

• PX1222 Mathematical Methods for Physicists II
• PX2232 Optics
• PX3148 Acoustics and Studio Sound
• MU1217 Fundamental Acoustics

Admin Duties

In my role as Director of Undergraduate Studies in the School, I oversee teaching organisation, curriculum development and the learning experience of undergraduates. I also prepare documentation for internal and external reviews of the School’s teaching. This role also obliges me to participate in various University committees.

Internally, I also act as Year 3 and Year 4 Tutor and organise Year 3 and 4 Projects.

I am Chair of the following committees:

• Examination Board
• Course Committee



  • Hill T.J.W., Richardson B.E. & Richardson S.J. ‘Acoustical parameters for the characterisation of the classical guitar’ Acta Acustica united with Acustica, Vol. 90 (2004), 335-348
  • Richardson B.E. ‘Simple models as basis for guitar design’, Journal Catgut Acoustical Society, 4(5) (2002), 30-36
  • Hill T.J.W., Richardson B.E. & Richardson S.J. ‘Input admittance and sound field measurements of ten classical guitars’ Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 24 (2002), CD-10 pages
  • Richardson B.E., ‘The acoustical development of the guitar’ Journal of the Catgut Acoustical Society, Vol. 2 No 5 (Series II) (1994), 1-10

Book Contributions:

  • Richardson B.E., ‘Stringed Instruments: Plucked’ in Encyclopedia of Acoustics, Ed. M.J. Crocker, John Wiley & Sons (1997), 1627-1634
  • Richardson B.E., ‘The acoustics of the cello’ in Cambridge Companion to the Cello, ed. R Stowell, Cambridge University Press (1999), 37-51
  • Richardson B.E., ‘The acoustics of the piano’ in Cambridge Companion to the Piano, Ed. D. Rowland, Cambridge University Press (1998), 96-113
  • Richardson B.E., ‘The physics of the violin’ in Cambridge Companion to the Violin, Ed. R. Stowell, Cambridge University Press (1992), 30-45


I obtained my BSc Physics degree from Salford in 1976, where I was able to specialise in acoustics. Following that I moved to Cardiff to undertake my PhD research on the acoustics of the classical guitar under the guidance of Professor Charles Taylor. I then held various posts in Cardiff as research assistant and tutorial fellow before being appointed to the lecturing staff in 1984. I currently hold the post of Reader. I am a member of Institute of Physics, a chartered physicist and a member Institute of Acoustics.

My love of physics and my research work actually stem from interests in music and making musical instruments. I just kept asking “Why?” and “How?” until all the answers ran out and I realised I would have to find out for myself. Music plays an important part of my life and I spend many hours making music on the French horn.

Postgraduate Students

Current students:

Ian Perry
Wiliam Roberts
Punit Shah (part time)

Former students (acoustics):

Dr Stephen Richardson
Dr Mark Lewney
Dr Maria Pavlidou
Dr Howard Wright
Miss Helene Bailliet
Dr Matthew Brooke
Dr Gordon Walker

Former students (sacnning tunnelling microscopy)

Dr Robert Petrie
Dr Simon Heghoyan
Dr Angela Fowell